There are several technologies in this area

The most used are those that can be inspected by the human eye due to their variety, low cost per item and simple verification procedures. In this regard, in many cases the verification operation can be performed through a visual inspection by a specialist or through the use of an app enhanced by image recognition carried out via a mobile device. Below is the list of solutions: visual inspection by a specialist or through the use of an app enhanced by image recognition carried out via a mobile device. Below is the list of solutions: visual inspection by a specialist or through the use of an app enhanced by image recognition carried out via a mobile device anti counterfeit label.

Below is the list of solutions:

Optical memory bands

Codes readable by automated systems

Security holograms

Micro tests

Guilloche / random rainbow printing processes

Unique identification markers

Identification / detection pattern

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL FEATURES

Chemical and biological anti-counterfeiting technologies utilize special materials to point and assess subjects. By manipulating the ingrained randomness of structures generated when specific filters or chemicals are pertained to elements, they behave as characteristics. The primary objective of these is authentication without simultaneous unique identification of the product, but they require the use of specialized hardware or laboratory tests to read and verify the generated markers. This makes it very difficult to reproduce similar markers by third parties. The costs of creating and affixing chemical and physical markers are generally low. However, specialized automatic reading devices, when needed, can be expensive. Therefore, It is worth remembering that immediate on-site verification is often not possible, not to mention that tests must be performed by the laboratories, which lengthens verification times. There are four types of chemical and physical technologies:

DNA coding

Surface analysis,

Chemical code and traces

Glue Coding

Chemical coding and tracers

AUTOMATED TECHNOLOGIES

Motorized technologies struggle with the real properties of substances to curb counterfeiting and establish effective tamper boundaries. When exhausted alone, they execute simple authentication purposes. When utilized in intersection with other technologies, they can moreover perform marker and tracking purposes. For instance, distinct marker codes can be encompassed in a label to enable property traceability.

Most mechanical solutions take the form of different types of labels, which can be classified according to their physical properties (i.e. the material used and / or how they are attached to the product). Labels usually need to be authenticated via an automatic reading device, such as a barcode reader. However, for other types of mechanical solutions, such as laser engraving, authentication can be done visually.